Annotated Bibliography


Topic: Female Sexual Assault in the United States Military


Primary Sources


  1. My Duty to Speak “Drugged and Raped in Germany.” Anonymous. Managing     Editor Panayiota Berzikis. Aug. 11, 2015.


This blog site has direct accounts from military women who have been assaulted. The site was set up by Panayiota Bertzikis and all posts sent to her and she publishes them on the site. Bertzikis is a United States Coast guard veteran who founded the Military Rape Crisis Center after she herself had been sexually assaulted while on duty. The center provides counseling to victims of sexual assault for no charge. The blog that she started is another outlet she wants victims to use. The certain blog post that I am focusing on is called, “Drugged and Raped in Germany.” This is a very graphic and heart-wrenching post that is a direct account of what happened to one particular 19-year-old girl while being deployed in Germany. It tells of what happened that night and how she was drugged and cannot remember the man who did it. It also briefly talks about her spiral afterwards and difficulty coping with what happened, especially because she can have no closure. However, the post was written anonymously and I cannot get any details about the author other than what she wrote. The intended audience was for the public, which is why she posted this on a public blog site. However, her intended reason for doing so is not to inspire people or let people really know what happened to her. In fact, she speaks that she will never tell her family and does not want people to know because she thinks they see her as weak. She wrote it as a source to express her sadness and uses the blog as an outlet for that. I can use this as a direct account, but because it is anonymous I can use it as an anecdote but not as backup solid evidence.



  1. 2. The Invisible War. Dir. Kirby Dick. Prod. Amy Ziering. May 13, 2013. Film.


Kirby Dick is an Academy and Emmy Award nominated documentary director who would direct the film, The Invisible War, in 2006, which was revolutionary in the investigation of female military assault in the United States Army. This was one of the first big films to be released about the subject, and documents real stories from women who were now willing to speak up about their tragedies. This is a primary source of the victims, but one thing it does lack is primary accounts from the other side, the perpetrators. This film’s intended audience was the general public, the documentary aimed to expose not only the extremely high rate of military sexual assault against women, but also how hard it was for their stories to be seen as reputable and the injustice in the system that they have to go through. The main message to get from the movie is that it is time to change the current system that victims of military sexual assault have to go through. It is a different system than the ones civilians go through (ones with judges, lawyers, etc.). These women have to report it to their commanding officer, often times who is the perpetrator or who is close to him and therefore will not risk that persons reputation and instead will harm the victims reputation, and perhaps even her safety. The movie seems to be very credible and how we know that is by how the women tell their story, and how their stories all seem to match up. They do not personally know each other. Yet, their cases are al very similar, which makes you see the common strategies that perpetrators will use. This will really help my research project because there are almost no other documentaries like this one and it has direct accounts from various women with all sorts of backgrounds that are testifying for my exact topic.


  1. “Military Sexual Assault Epidemic.” Artist Martin Kozlowski. Published. May 7, 2013.


Martin Kozlowki is a political cartoonist. He has had publications in a wide range of platforms including The National Law journal, The New York Times, and The Wall Street Journal. His image “Military Sexual Assault Epidemic” showcases a male military officer saluting with a female military officer. However, he has a terrifying glaze over her standing just right behind her as he is grasping his hand over his mouth. She on the other hand is standing in the same pose as him, saluting to the audience, yet her eyes are terrified and it is clear she is helpless, voiceless, and defenseless in the situation. The only thing differentiating the two is their gender, which is directly labeled on their hats. This photo is aimed to be very disturbing and saddening to look at. It is published to the general public, which is his main target audience. It is aimed to expose the tragedies of the issue and speak for the voiceless women who cannot do so themselves. This photo will help me express the issue through an artistic standpoint that I can use visual analysis to decipher and explain in my paper.



Secondary Sources


  1. Hoppen, Jane. “Women in the Military: Who’s Got Your Back?” Off Our Backs.

Jul2006, Vol. 36 Issue 2, p14-16. 3p. Print.


Jane Hoppen wrote the article in August 2006. She is a fictional and technical writer from Brooklyn, New York. It is a cover story that focuses on the issues military women face when reporting sexual assault. The paper is filled with great statistics, but does not have any first hand accounts and is therefore a secondary source. The intended audience is the general public and hopes to expose the difficulties of reporting these cases. Her writing makes the reader empathize and want to help because of the way in which she frames the piece. She starts out by explaining the basis of the military, the camaraderie, the family hood and how that is all demolished by a sexual assault and explains how traumatizing that must be for the individual. Her main point is to expose the difficulties, and because she herself has not gone through it she backs up her claims with statistics, but she also wants to point out that recently the military has issued a new law that is supposed to help these cases. However, she wants us to be wary of it, they tend to try and make it seem as if they are fixing the situation so we sweep the issue under the rug, when in reality the case is still the same and the women are no safer than before. I can use many of the statistics she uses and many of her arguments in my paper.


  1. Marrero, Joel. “Reframing and Reconstituting Normative Views of Military                                   Trauma: Moving Beyond Gendered Paradigms and Correcting Policies That Unduly and Unlawfully Subject Non-combat Trauma claims to Stricter Scrutiny” Indiana Law Review. 2014, Vol. 47 Issue 2, p509-541. 33p. Print.


Joel Marrero is a fair housing and civil rights attorney with the Southern California Housing Rights Center. He gained his Juris Doctorate at the UCLA School of Law. This is a secondary source that goes into great detail the legal issues with the United States military sexual assault process. The audience is intended to be scholarly and is supposed to be read by people in position with power to change the law. With his judicial background he is able to accurately get his message across in this way. However, because of his scholarly and sophisticated writing that is aimed for people that have gone through law training some areas are harder for me to understand. He wants to reframe and reconstitute the system so that victims do not have to go through their current process to obtain justice, because it is clearly not working. This source will be great for me to use because it is more sophisticated and scholarly than most other sources and allows for straight facts and law background. This piece is very important because it is a legal matter at the end and if we want it to change these are the sources of documents and people that will be directly involved.


  1. Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network “Reporting to Law Enforcement.” RAINN 2009.


The Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network provides general information that is intended to help victims and is the United State’s largest anti-sexual violence organization. It has its own hotline (National Sexual Assault Hotline) to where victims can call and also carries out programs to prevent sexual violence. I am focusing on the page “Reporting to Law Enforcement.” Here it gives a brief, but informative way in which a person who has been sexually assaulted can report their case, or be treated for their sexual assault. The intended audience is anyone who has been sexually assaulted and has any questions regarding reporting or getting help. Their main point is to try to answer any questions someone who is hesitant in reporting or getting a rape kit wants to know and hopefully they will reach out to the organization to get help. I can use this for my paper because it highlights some main differences that civilians and military women go through when reporting their cases.





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